Here is a recent annotated bibliography of several books that highlight the lives of children, a few of them Muslim, in various cultures around the world including Iraq, Kenya, Pakistan and Afghanistan.
Generally speaking the books show how children deal with their daily struggles by having lots of ambition and by using their imagination. However, you will find that the books describe the traditions/issues of a certain culture to readers who know little of them, an approach that opens our eyes to a better understanding of a different culture.
These books are mainly picture books for children ranging in age from 6 to 11 years. Some of these titles are a perfect example of what advanced picture books are like (i.e. picture books that are not meant for youngsters but intended due their subject matter, for older students). Some of the subjects are education of girls, child labour and wars. I found that Muktar and the Camels to be particularly interesting and touching because of the authenticity of the narrative and the beautiful illustrations.